discussion of mechanism of "ultradilution" / homeopathic "potentisation":
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Note: there are at least three species/categories of nano-particles": to
There has recently been much reference to observations of "nano-particles" in homeopathic preparations. Observed nano-particles fall into (at least) three categories.
Container Fragments: succussion/agitation may (14)
abraded fragments of the vessel in which the succussion is done (be that glass,
metal, or plastic).
"Source" Material: Chikramane
et al (15) have observed that dried concentrates
prepared from metallic homeopathic remedies (beyond Avogadro's number) retained
the spectrographic signal of the source material, the metal. To explain this phenomenon
- for if the density of source material in the remedies during their preparation
had been homogeneous, this would seem to defy the laws of logic and physics (and
we could create gold!). The authors explain what they think might be happening
as follows: "
during the succussion process, the pounding of solutions
against a rubber stop generates numerous nanobubbles as a result of entrapment
of air and cavitation due to generation of ultra-sound waves. The particles of
the starting material instantaneously get adsorbed on the surface of these bubbles
~ Quantum Coherence Domains (as nano-particles): Ho reported (16) that stable water clusters tens of nanometres to millimetres in dimension has been isolated from bulk water and imaged by electron-microscope in Shui-Yin Lo's laboratory at the Institute of Quantum Medicine, Pasadena, California. (this is published in 1996!). The clusters consisting of millions to billions of water molecules appear in a wide variety of flexible structure, bubbles or gels? that remained stable for weeks and months at room temperature and pressure. They have all the characteristics of "soft matter"-liquids, liquid crystals, colloids, polymers, gels and foams-that form nano-structures (much larger than the molecules themselves, but small compared with the "bulk water".
The figure show " different forms of supramolecular water clusters " which were "typically prepared by serially diluting a solution of pure sodium chloride with vigorous shaking (succussion) in ultrapure distilled de-ionised water Close-up, the diverse structures appear to be composed of spherical "balls" 50-100 nm in diameter. [a hundred times smaller then red blood corpuscles] they are electron dense at the surface. (elsewhere Lo discribes the particles as coming in three size: 15 nm, 300 nm, and 3000 nm )
"The effect of dilution, as explained by Lo et al was to enable dipole interactions between water molecules to dominate over ionic interactions and may be crucial in forming the supramolecular structures observed."
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14: or will, might seems to, tend to
cause the occurrence of
15: Chikramane et al., Homeopathy (2010) 99, 231-242. Extreme homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: A nanoparticulate perspective.
16: Ho, Entropy 2014, 16(9), 4874-4891; Illuminating Water and Life