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Norman Allan
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Living Crystals

 

Chapter Two: Living Crystals

It's the most obvious thought - bones are crystal. In the context of MAME's phenomenon the ramifications of this simple thought spun on and on.

Crystals: crystals "transduce" energies.

Remember the old crystal sets in the early days of radio catching the airwaves?

It was the Curie brothers who discovered that if you load a crystal, mechanically distort it, it gives an electrical response. They called this phenomenon "piezoelectricity". The theory, as the Physicist explained it to me, is as follows: if you could bend the electron shells around an atom that distortion would create imbalances of the electrical fields, and these imbalances would manifest as electrical charge. But we can't bend an electron shell. It's too small. When we bend a crystal we do actually bend the whole crystal matrix of precisely positioned atoms, and indeed we distort their electron shells. Electricity is generated, and this is piezoelectricity.


Crystals react to, that is they absorb and translate, mechanical forces and electromagnetic fields and radiation. (We're going to be using the word "electromagnetic" a lot, so I'm going to abbreviate it to EM.)

Mechanical forces manifest as movement (displacement of mass) and as acoustic behaviour (which is essentially movement, oscillatory, or vibratory movement. Physicists who study crystals, call the mechanical events they observe "phonon").

(uh-oh... I have just "learned" (March 2016) that (some say) piezoelectrical phenomena (and second harmonic generation) only occur in crystals "without inversion symmetry" : and apatite, the crystal in bone, has inversion symmetry. The piezoelectric activity in bone is attributable to the collagen only! some say. I need to research this further! Back to the drawing board. go to my essay on "the substance of life" to see the attempted up-dating in process.)

Electromagnetic fields (EM fields) pertains to electrical charge, and to its shadow, magnetism.

Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation) pertains to photon emission, light, radio signals, UV - ultraviolet, IR - infrared.

Crystals are substances that show an essential rhythmicity, periodicity, repetition of pattern, and not surprisingly much of their behaviour is periodic (rhythmic and quantal), and it is with crystals that we find "coherent" behaviour (i.e. crystals are used in the production of coherent radiation in lasers).

When events happen to crystals they radiate, resonate, and generate EM fields. I'm going to say that again:-

When any event happens to a crystal it will radiate, resonate, and manifest electricity and magnetism.

Bone: bone is a crystal that is made out of crystals. It is 60% mineral and 40% organic matter. Most of the latter is collagen. The collagen behaves as an A smectic paracrystalline liquid.


70% of the mineral content of bone is crystal. These crystals are tiny 10 to 30 Angstroms thick, 100 by 400 Angstroms wide and long crystal chips of apatite. These minuscule crystal flakes are arranged in a matrix "overlapped like bricks keyed to each other in a brick wall". They are tightly bound to a lattice of collagen.
Collagen, a fibrous protein, is a polar polymer,and shows rhythmic patterning at many levels. It is itself piezoelectric. Ignoring the wealth of internal patterning in the molecules, we see between molecules, and you'll need to look at the illustration to understand this, we see a precise axial register of the molecules such that each is displaced from all its neighbours by 0, 1D, 2D, 3D, or 4D periods, where D = 1/4.4 of the molecular length. As shown in figure 1, this leaves a "hole zone" into which the apatite crystals fit snugly. The side-to-side lattice, and hence the manner of packing of molecules in three dimensions, was still a mystery as of my day in the library(2). This much is known: the minuscule apatite chips are arranged in a metacrystal on piezoelectric wires, and bone is a crystal of crystals.

We should not be surprised, but should expect crystal structures such as bone to display electromagnetic phenomena. When transient charges are generated in such a matrix there will be accompanying radiational and "acoustic" behaviour. When we move we change the loading on our bones and this will create piezoelectrical effects (and "streaming currents" ), which are transient charges, so that at some order of magnitude the crystals, the bones, will radiate. And when we move a crystal through a magnetic field (such as the earth's) again transduction will occur: that is, magnetic changes will be reflected in mechanical, in electrical and in a lucent manner. Though these EM field effects may be relatively "subtle", they may explain many of hitherto mysterious things.

There is no more sophisticated crystal than bone. It seems almost designed to transduce. Can we deduce how it will function? First a word about the limits of (my) knowledge. Accurate deduction would depend on an understanding of the maths and physics of transductions in bone. I personally lack the maths and physics, and further, my search through the literature indicated that the present state of knowledge, about bone in particular, is primitive. Next I should say a cautionary word about "orders of magnitude". Orders of magnitude describe the difference between a bang and a whimper, between an atom and a universe, and often, between an effect and no effect at all. It goes both ways, though: a stimulus can be too small, or too large to cause a (particular) effect. It's "common sense" that some things, if they're too small, will escape our notice, or have no effect. However for many things little changes are significant (and on into "Chaos theory"). On the other hand, if signals are too large for a "receiver" that receiver will miss all the nuance, all the fine shape, and "perceive" the signal as a noise, "Bang!" It may have a "physical" effect, but we may lose the "signal", the "information". Take for example a pub rock and roll band. I put my fingers in my ears to try to hear the lyrics!

We see another illustration of this "too loud, too soft" principle with ultrasound (US). The most boring lecture I ever listened to was given by a chiropractor from Denver who used US (ultrasound) at "subtherapeutic levels". In "physical therapy" we use US to induce deep heat. We warm stiff tissues to mobilise them. The doctor from Denver used US at levels one to two orders of magnitude (ten to a hundred times) lower than that used in physical therapy. The Denver D.C. was claiming miracles with his subthermal doses. Thermal doses are quite a blast. Even at subthermal levels we must be rocking the tissues quite vigorously with a monotonous tone. It will shake the tissues, and the bones, at one single primative "mechanical" rhythm.

Orders of magnitude: imagine we you're sitting there with headphones on, and you have a microphone with which you're trying to pick up something very very soft. So you turn up the gain as high as possible to get maximum sensitivity, and them somebody yells in your ear. With a large signal we may lose the information, and just do damage. That's Arndt-Schults law. We'll come back to that.

Microelectrode studies of stress generated potentials in bone show that the local electrical fields are one to two orders of magnitude (that's 10 to 100 times) higher than estimates based on macro determination of average fields(3). That is to say, if we measure the electrical phenomena in bone at a microscopic level we find quite "large" events, but if we measure the whole bone they seem to average out. Then at a gross level it seems that little is happening. But if we go down in size some orders of magnitude we find that the energies involved have gone up several orders of magnitude.

The point about orders of magnitude is this: imagine I was speaking to you, rather than writing. My voice would resonate in your body. Let's go up several orders of magnitude with respect to volume. Imagine you are in a bar listening to that rock and roll pub band. Then you can clearly feel the resonance inside you. Now these resonances, these reflections of my voice in your body, or the music in the bar, they do resonate, somehow, in your bones; and this vibration of your bone, which is crystal, is going to be transduced into radio/light signals. We will, in theory, broadcast all the noise (and not noise) that we are bathed in. But at what magnitude? Small? tiny? infinitesimal? And if these signals are there, why haven't they been observed? We don't hear the ultrasonics that are all around us. Even if we're with a therapeutic "thermal" device, or with the diagnostic device, even though these are many orders of magnitude louder than the sort of sonics we can expect to get off of bones or tissues, still we don't hear these. They are out of our "spectral" range, and we need an appropriate technology to "hear" them. Then, when we look for radio waves, we look for fixed frequencies. All our technology is based on fixed frequencies, and the signals we can expect in biological systems will be varying frequencies, so we're almost bound to miss them given that we're not looking for them.

Just how important are "orders of magnitude"? What do they mean? They mean the difference between a caress and a blow, and if a stimulus is too small, is it a stimulus at all? Well that's a mute point. Remember hormesis! There was a theory in the earlier part of this century called Arndt-Schulz law which said that weak external stimuli enhance "protoplasmic irritability" or biological responses, strong stimuli inhibit them, and extremely strong stimuli destroy them. Here again orders of magnitude are important: they can excite, dampen or damn a response. We also seem to be accumulating evidence that minute imperceptible magnetic fields (which one would think are of no importance) appear to have sometimes a profound influence on organisms, where larger fields do nothing . Is the key to this a question of resonance? of matching patterns?

(Note that in homeopathy with its successive "dilutions", the strength of the signal is not diminishing: the amount of "substance" diminishes and disappears, but the "signal" if anything gets stronger.)

Okay: so what can we say about orders of magnitude? That they too are a mystery.

If animals have subtle yet complex EM fields, as MAME's work suggests, and as the fact that bones are crystals necessitates, then we can being to see explanations for many hitherto quasi-miraculous phenomena, such as:

Crystal healing: many claim that various crystals have healing properties. Taking into account what we know of the nature of crystals and of the nature of the body this should no longer be a surprise. We may find that these effects are subtle, but we must suspect that some are "real". Recalling the implication of MAME's demonstration of homeopathy, and the homeopathic wisdom that remedies have deep effects on emotion and mentation, and that we have all the indications that these remedies are EM resonances, then it follows that there is a level at which we are vibratory EM fields, and we must expect crystals to interface. Just as crystals have been used in radio broadcast transmission to hold specific frequencies steady, to stop broadcast frequencies from drifting, perhaps particular crystals can help hold and facilitate particular calming or healing patterns in the body's vibratory field.

When we say "body's vibratory field" it's going to be at once mechanical (phonon) and electrical, and when we say "electrical" that's going to be at once electrical, magnetic and radiational.

In the summer of 1988 I picked up a quartz crystal and started playing with it. I held it two centimetres above Hoku (the acupuncture point LI 4 between my thumb and index finger) and drew it perpendicularly away from my hand (at roughly 10 centimetres per second). I felt a drawing, pulling sensation at the point. Later that summer I was working with a patient with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (Werdnig Hoffman's Syndrome). She reported that finger pressure of acupoints caused a sensation of streaming in a nearby muscles, and along with this there was an observable twitching of these muscles. I decided to try stimulating the point, off the body, with the crystal. I moved the crystal in the manner described above over an acupoint behind the knee (B40). Now the sensation and the twitching were now much stronger. You should understand that the patient was a virtual quadriplegic and that when I stimulated Wiezhong (B40, popliteal fossa. ) the patient could not see or "feel" which leg I was stimulating, and yet the appropriate hamstring twitched.

I was relating this later to Crystal Croll-Young, who teaches Therapeutic Touch. "You know, you don't need the crystal," she said.

Therapeutic touch: in therapeutic touch the practitioner holds their hands off the body, say ten centimetres away, to feel what's there. Not surprisingly when one tries to feel subtle feelings, one frequently does. I would expect this whether there were anything there to feel or not. The surprise is that two observers tend to feel the same things.

To clear a patient's "aura" sometimes one may sweep one's hands through the "fields". Magnetic passes! The stuff of mesmerism.

In 1775 Mesmer devised a theory of "animal magnetism". According to this model there is a magnetic fluid which flows through the body. Obstacles to the fluid's flow caused disease. Mesmer, and his followers, worked in the following fashion: first he would do physical work on the body just below the diaphragm (obtaining diaphragmatic release). Then he would move his hands, or sometimes an iron wand, off the body - magnetic passes - and he would touch various points, "poles". Much of the work would be done around the head and face. Usually the patients would go into a "crisis". Though similar to catharsis, the crisis was more physical (than emotional) involving spasms and convulsions. Following the crisis, the patient's problems would resolve.

Mesmer was the consummate healer. His patients got better. He became a major celebrity in Paris, and needless to say attracted the hostility of the medical profession. In 1784 King Louis XVI appointed a commission of scientists and physicians to investigate Mesmer's methods. Among the members were Benjamin Franklin and the chemist, Lavoiser. While they didn't doubt his results, they reported that the magnetic fluid could not be perceived by the senses and that its existence could not be inferred from their studies of his patients. It just wasn't science. In the nineteenth century, with the advent of hypnotism, science retrospectively decided it could explain Mesmer's cures as hypnosis, and the concept of "mesmerism" took shape. But Mesmer's work was not primarily "suggestion": it was primarily "energy" work, and there seems little doubt to me at this point that this "energy" can have a magnetic aspect.

Considering what we know about bone crystal we may indeed give credit that something is happening when we draw our hands through another's "fields". EM fields interact. When we pull one through another, they exert force upon each other. Therapeutic Touch and "magnetic passes", again, are phenomena we should expect. And could this not be part of the secret of the laying on of hands? Surely.

Kirlian photography: Kirlian found that when he photographed living materials in a high frequency oscillating EM field, he saw in the films coloured lights apparently surrounding, and emanating, from the object - rays from finger tips, auras around leaves. Kirlian auras are only visible in the film. They are not apparent when one looks directly at the object in the field. So we are not dealing with visible light. We are dealing with an invisible energy - still possibly an EM radiation, e.g. UV. Most scientists feel that Kirlian photography is artifactual, but the artifact is not adequately explained. The Professor thought it was probably a "moisture artifact": that Kirlian photography records patterns of moisture that surround objects. Well, it would be interesting to know why there are rays of moisture coming off people's fingers tips. But it's more likely that we are looking at EM fields. After all, we can expect those to be there.

When you put an EM field-generating/interfacing crystal [such as bone, collagen, or cellulose , the stuff that animals and plants are made of] in a high frequency oscillating EM field you might expect to see a lucent reaction, but not necessarily in our narrow spectrum of visible light. But note, there is a difference between dead and living materials in the Kirlian field: wood, paper, non-living substances don't generate the same fields, so we'll have to distinguish "living crystals", crystals with living processes. In the living crystal processes are happening to their EM fields - and when we put a living system in a high frequency oscillating EM field, I don't think that lucent phenomenon should surprise us. The world no doubt behaves as it should. There is neither miracle or artifact here. However: here we should examine a negative aspect of the authors personality. For all these years I've been dismissing Kirlian photography as an artifact. Now I feel an idiot, and I know so little about it. And I have a grudge, therefore, against Kirlian photographers, just as Maddox, Nature's editor, has a grudge against homeopathy.

But the auras, the auras are there. We'll talk about them again.

Photon emission: several laboratories have claimed (usually very quietly) that they have observed, using photon multipliers, photon emissions from the finger tips. Again, once we focus on the crystal structure of bones it seems that they are almost designed to emit photons. [And again, we must attend to orders of magnitude. In photon emission the magnitudes seem to be quite small. But how vast are the electrical charges in my P.C.? It's where your charge is, and how it is organised, not how vast it is, that often counts. It's patterns, and resonance, that facilitate interactions.]

Electrical toxicity: there are several electrical phenomena that apparently cause adverse reactions in particular "hypersensitive" individuals. Certain fluorescent lights are often cited as irritant. In a Cheshire village nestled under a powerline 30% of the population suffer from migraines. We should not find it strange that people react to electrical signals. One of the questions to answer is why some people find particular EM fields noxious and others not.

Robert Becker tells an interesting story of how before electricity was discovered 250 years ago, and subsequently electrical technologies were developed, we were exposed to only three rather narrow bands of EM radiation: visible light along with some close by IR and UV frequencies, and some radio signals from lightening bolts that reverberate round the ionosphere, and cosmic radiation. (check this) Perturbations of the earths magnetic field accounted for the rest of the EM fields around us. Now we are drowned in EM radiation, all across the spectrum, and bathed in EM fields. Just today (20/11/91) I read in the paper of a large medical study that, yes, does find an association between EM fields and leukaemia. Beware the electric blanket and the television. If vibrational phenomena are involved in many levels of our regulation, EM fields may be expected to interface, and 50Hz (and 60Hz) doesn't seem to be a particularly friendly frequency.

Mechanical vibrations: tonight I had a headache, and when I walked into the kitchen the vibration of the refrigerator grabbed me by the head in an excruciating manner. I leave you to ramble through the ramifications. Vibrations...


Spacial orientation: some people have a "sense of direction". It is documented that animals have found their way home across vast distances. In birds, where the homing ability is most refined, the crystals have been moved from the bone right into the brain. I'm told that they have ferroapatite crystals in central nervous system (CNS) nuclei.

Crystals may be "doped" with various metals, and this changes their behaviour. Commonly in bone we see doping with heavy metals: gold, lead, strontium90. In birds it seems that doping with iron increases sensitivity to magnetic fields.

(I read a paper, I think a note in the Lancet, that I liked a lot, 'cause it fits my scenario, where the author claimed that holding the arms out wide, like aerials, helped in direction sensing.)

Schooling: complicated theories have been devised to explain how schools of fish can change directions all together in their thousands in such a coordinated fashion. Swish! they turn. The Scientific American some years ago had an article explaning this in terms of complex mathematics, but maybe there is a simple solution. We see bone first, evolutionarily, in fish. Might not the apatite crystal EM fields, which extend beyond the body, which interdigitate, explain schooling? When one fish changes direction, all may sense it.

Divining: people can divine where water is. And a heck of a lot more. If these are perturbations of the earth's EM fields that are being monitored, subconsciously, as seems likely, than we might want to look to the bones as the organs of perception.

Periosteum: where do we sense these fields? What is the interface of these subtle energies with the CNS (central nervous system)? There are almost no nerves in the bones, just some few that follow the blood vessels. The periosteum, the membrane lining the bones, however, is richly innervated with sensory nerve endings, and I wondered whether they were particularly sensitive to vibration. I went and asked Barry Sessle, a bright and open neurophysiologist, and the Dean of Dentistry at U of T. (Who studies bone? Why, dentists, of course). "Do you know anything about the innervation of periosteum?"

"Hmm. Sakada. Japanese dental physiologist. Something about vibrations. If you come round to my office I can show you the papers."

According to Sakada's studies there is no great difference between the sensory receptors in the gums, in the oral mucosa, and on the periosteum of the mandible. There are a variety of types of receptors which he divides into slow and rapid responding receptors. The slow receptors are sensing pressure and pain, and low frequency vibration! roughly 0.5 to 10 Hz. The rapid response receptors are sensing pressure, pain, and high frequency vibration, up to 500Hz, with a their greatest discriminative ability between 100 and 300 Hz (the octave below middle C)(4).

Interestingly, Sakada in his study of periosteal nerves used crystals to generate vibrational stimuli. A metal probe was fixed to a Rochelle crystal (KNaC4H4O6.4H2O). Current passed through the crystal caused discrete movements of the crystal and thus precisely controlled mechanical stimuli could be delivered to tissues.

Do periosteal nerves react to EM stimuli? No one has looked, but it seems likely. We should remember, however, that EM fields and radiation developed in bone extend beyond bone, and the CNS is surrounded by bone. The Professor spoke of Eccles' image of all the dendrites, the little branches of the tree-like nerves, in the cortex all pointing outwards, skywards; sensing the universe. "Through the vault of the bone crystal skull," I added.

Harry Oldfield reports that he beams radio signals into the body and monitors audio signals that come back out! The key experiment. When I first heard of Oldfield's work, about a month before all these pieces started falling into place, it gave me goose bumps.

A year or so ago, Donna brought Oldfield's devise into the lab for me to examine. The "diagnostic" part is a decibel reader with which one monitors to sonic emissions that the body gives off. The variations seen from one part of the body to another were around two fold or so (in the small sample we took on ourselves), not orders of magnitude (ten fold changes), and from one brief demonstration I was not convinced that much was really happening here.

The "therapeutic" part of Oldfield's devise puts EM vibrations in. He has an electrical oscillator leading into a single wire which runs into a tube or wand, water filled and filled with crystals. The oscillator and wire will be producing "induction currents" in the "wand". If you hold the wand (while its on) and then hold your finger nail closely to the tragus of your ear (that's the little flap that comes back over the ear-hole) a very wonderful, very real, and remarkable buzzing vibration is set up between the tragus and the fingernail. So the induction current would seem to induce a mechanical vibration in the body. Does this induction emanate from the bones, the Professor and I wondered? We had the Professor hold the wand to my belly, as far from bone as we could get, and still we heard and felt the vibration. Hardly a conclusive indication, but it seemed to suggest that maybe any tissues can do the transductions that I'd place in the bones. Drat! Still, it ain't that far from the belly to the spine, and tissues conduct, and just look at the figure below of the fine structure of bone. It's got to be doing something rather special... though cell membranes, and cell sol, is pretty special too.


A good idea should be testable, parsimonious, and seminal. The acoustic and electrical behaviour of bone should be readily observable. It should lend itself to testing in many ways.

When I sent out the first letter in my excitement (see appendix x), among the few replies was a letter from George Lewith, a brilliant alternative clinician, with a sharp sharp mind. "Great idea," he said, "and you and the Professor are just the people to test it." Again, drat. The Professor, as yet, as only the mildest interest in this line of reasoning, and he has other fish to fry, and so far I've lacked the time, skills and resources. So I'm just another armchair scientist. I did worked at the bench, for the Professor, for seven years, but on other agendas. Some of that time we spent studying the electrical behaviour of skin. We devised a new technology to look for acupoints (and turned up with a device for monitoring wound healing). The electrode we designed has an impedance of circa 1 Kohm. The area of the skin under our probe has an impedance of circa 1 Mohm. We passed a tiny, 10 nanoampere, constant current through this system. It is a sensitive system, and we screen it away from outside electric fields in a large faraday cage. Movement of body parts, that is either of the whole body or arms, legs, whether by the experimenter, the subject, or an observer, caused large signals (noise) in our system. Mark, our electrician, says it's just "an aerial effect". but I have to wonder if movement of a dielectrically equivalent mass of ions would generate the same field disturbance as the movement of a crystal organ. We are walking aerials, but we may not be passive aerials, and we are certainly highly structured aerials.

The thought that bones are living crystal organs is wonderfully parsimonious, for it explains numerous "mysterious" and "miraculous" observations in terms of established natural laws. And it is seminal. Once we focus on the interaction of biological systems with EM fields we gain a fertile new perspective.

The morning after the penny dropped back in February 1989, when the realisation of bone being crystal began to piece this jigsaw together, I came into the lab and found the Professor puzzling with the Physicist over MAME's ultradilute-D.N.A. matching data. In my excitement I proclaimed "I've found the answer to everything!"

"Write it down," said the Physicist.
"He's probably right," said the Professor. "No one will listen to him," and they turned back to their ultradilution puzzle.

"Hmm," I thought. "Might not ultradilution also be an EM field phenomenon?" When we put a remedy in our mouth it is very quickly degraded. Mixed with saliva it is soon functionally saliva. And yet we receive the information from the remedy. While there is ample evidence that substances are absorbed through the oral mucosa into the body (and indeed directly to the CNS), I doubt that this is the primary port of entry of homeopathic signals. I suspect we take the signal directly into the tissues (vibrationally), possibly into the bones, into their crystal matrix. True, water behaves as a crystal, but when we're making up our homeopathic remedies its in clean water, which is an empty field, whereas the water in cell sol is chuck-a-block full of diverse molecules with their vibrational "noise".

To try and understand some of this stuff I went to visit the Physicist to ask him about crystals. (I'd been to the library, and all the books on crystals start with "the Einstein equations" which I guess express the relationship of phonon, photon, and the matrix. I'm a simple neurophysiologist and clinician. I needed some help, you may imagine.) The Physicist told me to start by reading the Feynman lectures. "If you can read all three volumes you'll have more than the equivalent of a Ph.D. in physics," he said. ("And it will take three years," I thought.) I worked my way through the first chapter on electricity, and then thumbed through the rest of that tome. Flicking through the pages, my attention was pulled to the following: (with reference to "rectangular waves") in a coaxial cable, as an oscillating signal increases in frequency the electrical resistance rapidly falls to zero. For a high frequency signal a coaxial cable acts as a superconductor. But collagen is a coaxial system. Between the (polar, and therefore conducting) strands of protein there is a fluid matrix of mega-gigantic molecules - hyaluronate, and other giant proteoglycans. These are the stuffing substances of connective tissues. Pollack modelled the electrical behaviour of bone in terms of "streaming potentials", an electrical phenomenon that occurs when the large charged proteoglycans stream past the collagen wires(5). But I stray. The collagen wires are coaxial, and with high frequency signals these wires are therefore superconductors. No doubt this effects the processing of homeopathic signals in the body. Perhaps it's one of the reasons we are so sensitive to them, that resonance in the bones is superconductive, nonresistive.

I cannot doubt that the body has subtle EM fields, and it seems not unlikely that these will account (at least in part) for the aura, for divination of water, for the laying on of hands, and other mysteries. Mysteries. It's an interesting thing about phenomena that one has not experienced or noticed: I, at least, have tended not to believe in them. I'm from Missouri. Let me tell you something I've just seen.

If you cup your hands around someone's skull - best do this with them lying on their back - and listen with your hands, feel for the subtlest motion at the very border of hallucination, you will feel a pulsing, a very slow pulsation, roughly 10 cycles a minute, 3 seconds out and 3 seconds in. This is the CranioSacral rhythm that the osteopath John Upledger has explored. When you feel the rhythm, go with it, follow its movement with your hands. Now if you follow it without resisting it will become blurred who's leading and who's following (like Newton's law of action and reaction). Accept it, provisionally, just for the moment, because once you've found the rhythm, it's there. When you resist it you feel it like an energy creeping. Once you've got it, you can't mistake it. Now I went nearly fifty years without noticing this phenomenon, and when I first heard of it a few years ago, I didn't believe in it. But once you've found it... How many other things have I ignored? Mysteries. Some of these are figments, but some are phenomena looking for an explanation, and maybe once we register the phenomena clearly the explanations won't be so hard to find.




Bibliography

(1) Guyton: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 6th ed., Saunders Co. 1981.

(2) Eyre: Collagen, Molecular Diversity in the Body's Protein Scaffold. Science, vol 207: pp1315-1322, 1980.

Actually, the exact shape of the crystals is still unclear. There are at least three different shapes or species of apatite micro-crystals in bone, one of which fits into the "hole zones". Lee: A model for the distribution of HAP crystallites in bone - a hypothesis. Calcif. Tiss. Int. vol 27, pp53-56. 1976. Weiner and Price: Disaggegation of Bone into Crystals: Calcif. Tissue. Int. vol 39, pp365-375. 1986.

Miller and Burnell: The effect of crystal size distribution on the crystallinity analysis of bone mineral. Calcif. Tiss. Int. vol 24, pp105-111. 1977.

(3) Pollack et al: Microelectrode studies of stress generated potentials in bone; in Brighton et al: Electrical Properties of Bone and Cartilage, 1979.

(4) Sakada: Physiology of Mechanical Senses of the Oral Structure: Frontiers of Oral Physiology, vol 4, pp 1-32, 1983.

(5) Salztein and Pollack: Electromechanical potentials in cortical bone: J. Biomechanics. vol. 20. pp261-280. 1987.


 

 


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